During the reign of the Achaemenids, the city was surrounded by a high solid wall. In the IX-X centuries and Samarkand became the first capital of the Samanid dynasty, as well as one of the cultural centres of the Islamic East. A majestic palace of Samanid king was built in the western part of Afrasiab. By this time area the inner part of the city had reached 220 hectares. There were bazaars, mosques and caravanserais on the south part. In XI-XIII centuries Samarkand became the capital of Karahanid. In 1220 was destroyed by Mongol ruler Chinghiz Khan. In XIII century Samarkand was suffered therefore Afrasiab was fully ruined.
Nowadays Afrasiab is one of the largest architectural monuments. Expedition is still exploring archeological excavations. All the finds of ancient city Afrasiab are restored in the History Museum of Samarkand.