The Syrdarya is the second longest river after the Amudarya River in Central Asia. The length of the river is 2,212 km. The basin area is 219,000 km ². The rivers Angren, Chirchik and Keles flow into the middle stream of the Syrdarya River. The bed of the river is twisting and unstable. There are many lakes and marshes in the mouth of the river.
Glaciations in the basin of the river Syrdarya is not so strong like in the Amudarya River. Previously, the Syrdarya flowed into the Aral Sea, but because the level of water was reduced and the sea was divided into two parts, now the river flows into in northern part of the Sea. Because of the waters of the Syrdarya are used for agriculture, the flow volume decreased by 10 times.
There are 6 regions of Uzbekistan on the territory of the Syrdarya River: Andijan, Namangan, Ferghana, Tashkent, Jizzakh and Syrdarya, 3 regions of Kyrgyzstan: Naryn, Osh and Jalal-Abad, Sughd region of Tajikistan and two areas of Kazakhstan: South Kazakhstan and Kyzylorda.
Greek historians called the middle stream of the river "Tanais", which flowed on the Scythians territory. In the II century BC, the existence of two Tanais (the Mediterranean and Europe) was found by the Greek writer Arrian. According to him, earlier the Syrdarya was called "Yaksart" is the ancient name, widely-spread among the local tribes.
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